Phytoremediation makes it possible to reuse wastewater deriving from domestic, agricultural and industrial uses, through a natural purification system, which is typical of wetlands and aquatic environments.
Phyto-purification has distant origins: it was also used in Roman times in the Pontine Marshes (an area of former marshland in the Lazio region of central Italy), in China and in many other civilizations.
Phytoremediation is a natural system, compatible with the environment, addressed to sustainable management of water resources.
In phytoremediation, wastewater pass through a waterproofed basin, filled with gravel and aquatic plants. The combined action of the plants and the gravel create microorganisms and biochemical reactions that eliminate pollutants.
The output water will be purified water, containing no sludge, according to law. The abatement of the organic matter content will exceed 90%.
The process takes place with no use of chemical agents, electrical or mechanical parts, any kind of additional energy, in a completely environmentally friendly manner.
The mainly used and tested phyto-purification systems are divided into three categories, according to the employed type of plants and to the characteristics of the course of the water:
- Free Water Surface Systems (FWS)
These are those systems which faithfully reproduce natural marshland area. Water is not deep and is in direct contact with the atmosphere. The used plants are helophytes and Rhizophoraceae.
- Horizontal Subsurface Flow Systems (SFS-H or HF)
These are trays covered with inert material, in which the outflow flows in horizontal direction. The used plants are emerging rooted macrophytes.
- Vertical Subsurface Flow Systems (SFS-V or VF)
These are trays covered with inert material, in which the outflow flows in vertical direction. The used plants are emerging rooted macrophytes.
The STC Water Division designs and realizes phytoremediation systems for an efficient purification of small utilities. These plants are sized for any domestic, agricultural and industrial need and for small communities.